Selasa, 19 November 2019

Social and cultural geographic background of socially



 Kerinci Regency which is also called Sakti Alam Kerinci is a plateau area located in the west of Jambi Province at an altitude of 450 m to 1500 m above sea level or between 101 ° 08-101 ° 50 East Longitude and 1 ° 41- 2 ° 26 South Latitude  with His limits as follows:

 • North side is bordered by Solok Regency, West Sumatra Province.

 • South of the border with North Bengkulu Regency of Bengkulu Province.

 • The East is bordered by Bungo Tebo Regency, Jambi Province and

 • West side is bordered by Pesisir Selatan Regency, West Sumatra Province.

 The Kerinci area consists of a plateau that is surrounded by Bukit Barisan whose capital is Sungai Penuh and is 450 km from the city of Jambi.  In addition to the highlands there are also some Mount Turmeric, Mount Raya, Mount Sumbing and Mount Kerinci.

 This area consists of several districts.

 Kerinci is an area bounded by Nature that is difficult to be crossed by humans, North, South, West and East surrounded by wild humans so that it appears a Regency that has a natural exotic glow.  This area is estimated to have an area of ​​24.00 square kilometers and has an estimated population of more than 280,000 people or around 27 people per kilometer in Jambi Province.

 In order to fulfill his daily needs, most of the residents of Kerinci work as farmers, namely the food and plantation sector. Besides that, there are also those who work as civil servants, even though their civil servants also work in the fields and work in their fields.

 his side search.

 His geography and culture, the Kerinci community still has a high togetherness because everything is resolved by deliberation, this is due to mutual respect for each other owned by the people of Kerinci.  Both between parents and children and among other members of his community.

 The rapid development of science and technology and the incessant flow of foreign culture to Indonesia make us worry about the original culture we have.  The diversity and cultural uniqueness that attracts the attention of other countries owned by Kerinci, will gradually fall into the influence of outside cultures.

 For this reason, this native culture should be preserved so that at any time it will remain standing in the geographical area of ​​Kerinci, the effort to maintain it rests on the shoulders of all Kerinci people.  As members of the community, of course we are also responsible for preserving culture, especially local culture needs to be important in supporting the development of national culture.


 Kerinci regional culture that we have counted as national culture, Kerinci culture lives and develops in accordance with the social values ​​of the community.  This regional culture is part of the national culture.  Efforts to dig up inventory and develop the culture of the region itself.

 Not only limited to enriching diversity, but at the same time as an effort to improve qualitatively.  Culture that is owned by every region everywhere is an important element of the culture itself.  Language is closely related to language culture is part of a culture that displays a picture of life and as a reflection of the social system that exists in society.

 In line with this, our culture is concerned with the way humans live and how humans regulate His life. Humans learn to think, feel, believe and try what is appropriate according to His culture, For example: Friendship, eating habits, communication practices and actions  social activities as well as economic activities, and politics, technology, all of which are based on culture and culture are defined as the order of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchy, religion, roles, spatial relations and concepts of the universe.

 From this statement we can conclude that our culture has a regional cultural values ​​system that shows an identity that must be maintained and developed.  This kind of effort is useful for the culture as supporting the interests of national culture.  It is expected that government policy in the field of culture which among other things aims at the elements of regional culture through regional languages ​​as the main means of reflecting regional life.

 Talking about our geography and culture, at least he has discussed the value system contained in the midst of society known as geographical and cultural institutions, namely the layout of the region, the way humans live in groups by regulating the relationships between one another in community life, one form  regional culture is inherited and is part of regional culture that lives in the midst of society.

 Cultural heritage that is passed down from one generation to the next.  If the socio-cultural concept is used for one of the cultural experiments it will also reflect changes in society.  On this side the culture meets to influence each other, need each other and mutually determine the growth and development of basic values ​​in the social reality of the people in the City and Regency of Kerinci.

 If the socio-cultural concept is used to see the realization and reality of culture, culture is one of the forms of cultural experimentation towards the creation that revives in Him gets two positive and negative responses in the hope that it leads to the development of value devices built in to the reality of people's lives.

 It is at this time that socio-culture meets to need one another, and determine the mutual growth of basic human values.

Minggu, 17 November 2019

Short Story of Love


 Writing about the introduction of this rhetoric of love, is one of the thoughts, expressed through writing released by the author in the article verse for netizens. In writing there is the meaning of love and longing for someone.

 O my dearest person, if you want goodness for yourself, then invite some friends who may be close to you, maybe he your friend can help by giving advice in understanding something. When you have understood the meaning of longing you will feel and understand the meaning of a cup  Do not leave inspiration that can move your heart to be able to think effectively.

 O dear person, do not ever feel sad and compassion, one time you see the status of the songs that are presented in the media, maybe it is just entertainment to release and meluahkahan his longing, and do not be offended, maybe he once listened to sms or by telephone  that you have ever sown, he does not feel hurt by it, because he loves you. In understanding a problem it is better to ask questions through your close friends, O women I love, just consider the problem between us the seeds of the fruit of love.

 O people I love, keep away from the relationship (mujadalah) and have a dispute in the matters that we have ever felt, respond to everything with knowledge, as the beginning of mahligai development, which will not waste what you have ever said.

 O my dear ones, multiply (review) a variety of knowledge that you get on the Academic bench, so that you can distinguish beautiful language, Truly longing, love, hate and affection is a common thing to happen to get to know one another.  can overcome the test will get a noble position, on the contrary the community will denounce us if it does not succeed in overcoming this problem well, O people who love me. "Because to hate you is love and to know and love you is a gift.

 Since the incident became a reality of love that God willing can bear fruit reality,

 therefore your efforts and enthusiasm, is a gift to get to know you.

Sabtu, 16 November 2019

How to propose according to kerinci custom



Hi .. Guys this time the author reviews about the customs of Kerinci, with a very unique dialeg that exists only in the Kerinci area, Jambi province you know ... !!!

 Let's see the description of the author ...

 Various cultures and customs in Indonesia have their own interests in each region in the Indonesian archipelago, this time the writer's interest in worrying about "Parno Helat Pinang woo and Kerinci community marriage".

 Customs which are coded as 'syara', 'syara' are jointed by the Book of Allah, and we can also see customary rules that are leveled up and down stairs, inherited heirs, caliphs upholding.  Adat lives on as long as the customary community of his supporters, broken grows and continues to change, customary traditions must not disappear.

 Based on the marriage ceremony of marriage betel nut and the Kerinci community, then the writer will elaborate on the two structures of the betel nut marriage and marriage to the Kerinci community.

 The element of customs although overall parno helat marriage is customary words, but there are certain parts that clearly describe how the actual position of his custom in society, such as parno quotes sending the bride back to the Kerinci community;

 "Manuka adeak kito itouh, let's custom the basandi syara ', syara' jointed with the book of Allah. Adeak is customary to shara 'with makai, a long step up by the gods.  the argument, I add with sluko, adato ngato:

 "Buhauk lahai jalipung lahai

 Buroe pua jalipung tumboeh

 Patoeh tumboeh ila bagantoe

 Hold the adat kukoh-kukoh ".


 The male financiers came to the female financier by bringing a story containing betel cycles.  When he got there they were allowed to sit on the mat and were usually housed in the middle of the room, sitting positions facing each other.  Cerana is placed in the middle of both parties.  As the opening ceremony for the event, the woman asked what the purpose of the visit of her guests was, even though the visit was known, the female finance party kept asking.  That night in the Kerinci dialeg is called "Ngapak Siheieh" (putting the betel) then the following conversation took place:

 "Assaalamu'alaikum warah Matullah".

 "Waalikum Salam".

 "Where are you funded".


 "Managing Kayoe with Sado Dateih is ineffective, with no mention of Gloa, Kecik Not Named Namo, Kamai Sado Uhang Umoeh Ineffective, arrived in Tarimo as it was in Pado Kayo Sedo Ineffective, with Dateang Pado Uoeh Ineffective, Kecik not mentioned Namo, Kamai Sado Uhang Umoeh Ineffective, arrived in Tarimo as in case of Kayo Sedo Ineffective, with Dateang Pado Uoeh Ineffective, Ndok Manyampe in Pado Kayo-Kekek.  until my peno kayo-kayo, Bak kato kayo ugoe, if it does not reach taraso in lidieh, if it is not taraso not in the hands, if the steel is going to the big bang, if the blayea is going to the island, if you are not basing, if you are not braving, do you fight, if the steel is going to the opposite direction,  sapo kamai numboe kato. "


 "Manay, let's fund"


 "If you are ideo ado barado, ideak temple basarang is weak, if your idea is intended in umoeh ineih, kamai ndoek nuek pado kayo what you mean kayo sado ineih, datae kumoeh kamai ineih. (" Conveying the intention to propose to help the woman. ")

 Kerinci dialeg translation above:

 "Where is Mr. Tengganai".


 "Where are the ladies and gentlemen and brothers who come all this. The big one is not mentioned, the small title is not named. As for all of us in this house, to thank all of you, who have come to this house.  Apart from that, to Mr. Tengganai, this house would like to speak at Tengganai, giving words to convey expressions, to say as long as adat, to ask you, as you said, too, if crushing, you should feel dilidah if you push, you should feel in your hands.  if we sailed to the island, if we were fasting if we said piling up, now who do we stack up with?

 "Yes, we are."

 "Where Mr. funded".


 "If it is not located, it will not be low nesting. If there is no intention to this house. We would like to ask you, what do you mean by all this coming here to our house."

 Custom Wedding Ceremony

 At the time of the marriage contract which is usually carried out at night, the bridegroom is escorted by his party to the house of the woman.  What should not be left behind to deliver is the funding of women who have also been waiting for His funding and His family.

 After the preparations are completed, the qadhi and the guardian of the judge are present, then he takes the incense that smokes with betel vines, and the wedding ceremony begins by the women's fund with parno adat as the authors attach as follows:

 "Asaamulaikum Warahmatulllahi wabara katuh"

 "Walalaikum Salam Warah Matullahi Wabara Katuh"

 "Sarepek-Nyo Kito, who was funded on the floor by being bent or clad in dindoen basuduk uduk. Adopun kamai ndoek launched kato to parno, saying along the length of the adoe and the purpose of the padoe ineih, if you don't look at the traso in lidoeh, if you don't, please stop.  bujaleang nuju bateh, if you balaye bukato batumboek challenge, kinai ineih pado sapo kamai manumbok kato. "


 "We can fund you."


 Peak bapingkak add up, visit rueh with bukau, adeak manapio bapingkak tuhaun, leave adeak with pusako.  Adeak or sprout, lambago or pour, tumboeh-tumboeh, romance, sprout sinyoe this evening, kato saluko adeak ngato.  "

 "Badeteak is more twisted

 Strange thing in bidoe

 Biea sagadoen doesn't know kamayan

 If it's ideas, it's ideas. Nyo babau.

 Kerinci dialeg translation above:

 "As close as we are on the floor covered by a roof, which is surrounded by a four-cornered wall. As for us, we want to give the word,

 deliver parno.  Spell out as long as the custom is the purpose of the dispute tonight. If you chop, feel the tongue, if you push, you should feel it in your hands.  If you walk to the boundary, if you sail to an island, if you set a foundation, if you say, challenge collide.  Now who are we pounding words.  "

 "Look, Mr. Tengganai".


 "Pulai customs are up, leave segments with books, human customs go down, leave customs with heritage. Adat grows, institutions

 for space, growth, romance.  Grow like tonight, said the traditional pantun said;

 "Ticking splitting areca nut

 Shrimp cubs in the boat

 Let the size of the knee save incense

 If it's burned it won't smell. "

 And that is the two traditional marriage structures in Kerinci, the next meeting, the author InsyaAllah, as much as possible wrote about the other marriage structures in the Kerinci area with a very interesting customary dialogue.  

Kerinci Cinnamon


Cinnamon is one of the woods that has the largest assets in Kerinci Regency, Jambi which is planted in a number of tropical forest areas in Kerinci Regency Jambi, thus cinnamon is a community forest self-supporting community in Kerinci Regency which is located in Renah Kayu Embun, Lempur and Siulak forests.  This has a positive impact on the people who manage cinnamon, which has an export value that has been so extraordinary in the past.

 The author wants to explain about the composition contained in cinnamon bark as follows:

 Cinnamomum according to Gillferr's department of agrigulture Br. Salamon 1971 in the following table:

 Cinna Momum Burmanni

 Composition characteristics

 Water content.  7.9%

 Afsitri oil.  3.4%

 Alcohol Extract.  8.2%

 Ash 4.5%

 Water Soluble Ash.  2.23%

 Coarse Fiber.  29.10%

 Carbohydrate.  4.2%

 Enter Extract

 which does not fly.

 Bj is average.  1.02- 1.07%

 Benefits of Cinnamon

 Cinnamon bark is a type of spice that is widely used as an ingredient in scents of food and drinks and additives in the making of perfumes and medicines.

 As an Anti-Microbial

 Cinnamon consisting of uebenol and cinanal dehide has the killing power against microdrbanism in trials in a Cinnamon oil laboratory and mapu kills receptive microrganism in the form of bacteria but is a viral cause of typhus in 12 minutes.

 Processed Cinnamon Products

 Cinnamon good products of cylon cassia, usually used in the form of dry skin, use of the skin.

 Cinnamon, can be in the form of skin for cooking spices such as curry goat, usually also in the form of powder. But the use of modern cinnamon is usually in the form of astiri oil or oleorsin oil. Distillation and cinnamon powder or other plant parts while oleorsin is the result of extraction from powder  the value with oleirsin is higher than the oil itself. Because in oleorsin in addition to the oil contained astiri also also includes the spicy taste of the extracted product.


History of regional land of natural heavy Kerinci



 Kerinci is a mountainous region, located between 101 ° 4 and 101 ° 5 East, between 1 ° 35 and 2 ° 25 South Latitude.  His area is estimated at 1,500 square kilometers.  His population numbered approximately 240,917 people (His population census of 200,000 inhabitants was native speakers of the Kerinci language, while the rest were migrants who spoke Minangkabau or other regional languages.

 The current population of Kerinci, in addition to the Kerinci tribe, also consists of Minangkabau, Malay Jambi, Javanese, and several other tribes in Indonesia.  In the Kerinci region there are also very small numbers of foreign Chinese and Indian tribes.

 Before 1958, Kerinci was a statutory status in the South Coastal and Kerinci Districts (PSK) within the Central Sumatra Province.  Since Central Sumatra was divided into three Provinces in 1958, namely West Sumatra, Jambi and Riau, Kerinci became an area with a regency in the environment of Jambi Province.  The country capital of Sungai Penuh.

 The Kerinci region is bordered by the western region, with the North Regency of Olok Regency, West Sumatra Province.  South side with Sarko Regency, Jambi Province.

 The Kerinci tambo-tambo traditionally mentions the Kerinci border as follows (In 1969) next to the Hulu, which has Rajo Bungsu, a Red-Bearded White Surge, Reinforced brother (Red) in the Pagu River, Watas in Batu Kambing (at the northern foot of Mount Kerinci  ).

 Next to the land, Aur Perindu Falls, the road continues to Batu Luncung, Beragur Gunung Humpback, until it reminds us of Pasimpau Koto Anau, so it reminds us aka 8 pieces of cloth.  Plunged into the Ligo River, snapped into Sakok Kecik, met with Datuk Sri Bagindo Mentinan 50 (Indra Pura now), there was made with a promise in Bukit Sitinjau (Agreement of Mendugo Hunchback Pole).

 Next to the barren (next to Baruh: East and South), take a deep lurah, up a high cliff, down a smoky telun (waterfall), loose (continue) to Lubuk Buih (Boundary with Muara Masumai, Bangko now), to supervision  He is Rio Ramai (Penghulu Masumai) and Rio Ngamundai (Penghulu Masumai too), sitting at the root, so that he came here to supervise our grandmother Alam Kerinci.


 Kerinci area is an area bounded by nature that sugar is crossed by ordinary people, both jungles and mountains so that the area is remote and difficult to accept outside influences by his strong Ada-Istiadat.  The Kerinci area is among the most recently controlled areas of the Netherlands.  The Netherlands could only master Him in 1903.

 Before Him Kerinci was an independent area that had its own system and apparatus known as the Government of the Eight Depati IV Strands of Cain.

 Before the arrival of the Dutch, Kerinci had had relations with other regions, such as Minang Kabau, occurring in three periods.  First, during the Kerinci period was ruled by the Sigindo (village heads who were in full control in his areas as small kings) before the 10th century.  At this time has come and settled in Kerinci some prominent people from Minangkabau, such as Sulthan Mahara Hakekat descendants of King Pagaruyung, Indra Jati descendants of Mangkudun Sumanik and King Keniting Raja Minangkabau's younger brother, Tuanku Syah Alam.  The three shops and their followers resided and married local residents, respectively in Temiai, Hiang and Sangkar Island (1890).

 Second, along with the entry of Islam in Kerinci, spreaders of Islam came from Minangkabau.  They are known as Siak (Sheik).  There were seven famous Siak at that time.  Siak Jelir in Koto Jelir (Siulak), Siak Rajo in Medang River, Siak Ali in Koto Beringin (Liuk River), Siak Lengaik in Koto Panan (Sungai Penuh), Siak Sati in Koto Jelatang (Hiang), Siak Baribut in Koto Merintih (Sungai Liuk)  Tarutung) and Siak Ji (Hajj) in Lunang (1970).

 Third, since the signing of the treaty of peaceful coexistence between Kerinci, Minangkabau (Indra Pura) and Jambi in Bukit Sitinjau Laut in 1833. Kerinci and Jambi relations had been going on in the 13th century during Kartanegara, Raja Raja Singosari sent troops-  He went to Jambi, which is famous for Pamalayu.

 Since that time Singosari has raised Tumenggung Depati from Java as the Viceroy in Kerinci Hulu.  He came to Kerinci to carry out the tasks suggested by Raja Jambi to investigate and establish friendly relations with Kerinci, then to try to submit to Raja Jambi.

 During the trip, he met with succession (1) Raden Serdang (Mendugo Rajo Hunchback Pole) in Tamiai and then awarded the title with Muara Langkap Depati and a silk cloth (2) Sigindo Gerinting on Sangkar Island, which was held with Depati Rencong Talang and  A Silk Fabric (3) Sigindo Teras in Pengasi, which was awarded the title Depati Biang Sari and a Silk Fabric (4) Indra Jati in Hiang, which was awarded the title Depati Batu Hampar.

 Indra Jati has seven subordinates, while the cloth to be presented by Tumenggung has only one strand left.  With the approval of Indra Jati, the cloth was divided in two.  One for Indra Jati and another part divided into seven to his subordinates.  Since that incident was known in Kerinci area named Three Strands and Eight Strands.

 The role of the Minangkabau in Jambi greatly influenced the social and cultural life of the Kerinci population originating from Jambi and the Minangkabau as mentioned in the law coming from the Minangkabau Batale Galeh, Talitai came from Jambi Batajek Satang (pole, shaped).  He means that customary rules come from Minangkabau, while government regulations come from Jambi.

 From the description above it can be seen that the Kerinci area is an area that was previously isolated (by the jungles of the wilderness and mountains).  Regional and Kerinci Communities have their own local culture and language.  Other cultural (regional) influences originate from Minangkabau and Java, while other influences come from Islamic culture.  (Ad)

Jumat, 15 November 2019

Element contained in parno held of marriage indigenous marriage



 In the discussion this time the author will try to explain two things that will be discussed, namely the first elements involved in Parno itself concerning vocals and instruments.  And the two other elements that can support or elements needed during the implementation of this Parno.  The two are inseparable because the two are interrelated.

 • The elements involved in Him

 Vowels (voice) as stated in the introductory parts, that this Parno is oral literature in the form of lyrical prose that uses poetry and rhythm in his delivery, then the vocal (voice) plays an important role so that what is conveyed during parnoise is achieved, because  in Parno can not be separated from how clever his carrier without being accompanied by traditional musical instruments.

 Instruments (incense, cerana, microphone).  The use of incense and cerana containing betel vine is as a complete supporter of the event, which is to respect the gentleman who will parnoise and also to respect the ninek mamak and other guests who are present.  Both of these facilities are placed in front of people who are parenting so they feel more concentrated and the event can take place smoothly and successfully.  While the microphone as a loudspeaker so that when parnoise can be heard by the general public.

 • Other elements that can affect Parno's contents

 The element of advice, advice is pituah, a good guide that someone will give to others.  Advice given so that others can change the mistakes He made and can also be used as a guide or guide for the future.

 In this Parno Helat Marriage, words of advice are poured out in the form of a proverb like the example below:

 "Ateih husband and wife, Saiyo Sakatoe, peaceful peace, sarantoak youth, ka ilei sarangkauh dayeaung, nyuhak samo anyauk, tradea samo basoah, tudaung manudaun, the crew are like sis sengkoak sendoa, they are like sarongsuh dayeaung, nyuhak samo anyauk, tradea samo basoah, tudaung manudaun glah crew like sis salamoak sendoa scooping like jagenang rboah.

 Takuek in sakalai is very sjoak from rebeung to suloeh, bayau pinuoa tuo klapo, sko siheih ideah pandei ngato baginai-bagitau (Parno Marriage).

 Translations of the Parno Indigenous dialect of KERINCI above:

 "On the association of husband and wife, seiya one-sided, peaceful harmony, whirling in a rowing paddle, going back and forth like a pole, crumbling at the same time hopping jumping together broken, floating same as drifting, soaking as wet. Hooding we are like betel leaves, leaning back leaning like aur with cliffs.

 Do not collapse the cliff, aur do not fall in this bend once, from the bamboo shoots, until kasuluh.  Old coconut areca nut, heirloom heritage is not good at saying this.

 Parno above is the advice given by the Parno bearer to a husband and wife who had just entered into a marriage contract.  In his advice that husband and wife always seiya one-sided, harmonious peace, down to all the rowing paddles, hicketing pudding, crunching at the same time hopping jumping broken, broken as well as drifting, submerged and wet.  Also advised that they live giving and receiving slaling, mutual understanding with each other and not hurt each other.

 • Feeling Elements

 The element of feeling is a feeling that is owned by humans towards something, whether it concerns beauty, joy, sadness, feeling like, good taste, hatred, disgust, sense of joy and others as His which concerns the situation and conditions being experienced  someone.  Owned by someone it is poured in the form of beautiful words, with the aim of describing the contents of His heart, as quoted by Parno below:

 "Like kato, do you have a tattoo, janjoe di bennea in mulio, janjoe until close, with mano undein kito mala ineih, pudeian lentouk Madison listen to tando baunjuk cihi. Apo ko kinai, kuteah kuleih buleih in touch, puteih or bakanyataan.  Welcome.

 Translation of the Parno Indigenous dialeg of KERINCI society above:

 "As the customary words say, promises are made glorified, promises reached. They are negotiated tonight, pudding forms musiro fall, negotiating all the time already, is showing a sign showing features. Whatever this, white cotton can be seen, white hearts say.  Asking for a sign, we are highlighting features. "

 "Bak Kato is adato ngato, tai chi with pamuhun, ku janjoei with tando. On joe janjoe with batindeih, I put the lottery between kito, challenge anok, where kito itoueh. Adeak kato manal lalau, adeak tandoe manahan patoah, maknyo tando jangeang patahah Nya, adey tando jangeim cahih Nya?  Mintoak accommodated with him, hopefully God will guide Kito by putting down Taufik and Hidayah-Nyo ".

 Translations of the Parno Indigenous dialect of KERINCI above:

 "As the word custom says, strong promise with pembuhul, strong promise with a sign. On top of a sign with overlapping, break up the negotiations between us about our child, Adat said withhold then, custom withholds a broken sign. So that the sign must not break, the sign should not break,  ask to be accommodated with prayer, may Allah bless us by bestowing His taufik and guidance. "

 The first Parno described the joy, the joy of both parties, because the promises made had been kept, the negotiations made had been completed so that he reached his top event which was to give each other a sign of merit and just wait for the right moment to make the marriage.

 The second parno described feelings of fear or worry, because after the sign was given there had to be a time plan until the wedding ceremony.  It is during this waiting time that there is a sense of worry that undesirable things will occur. So to dispel worries so that the signs to be given are not disturbed by others, they are accommodated with prayers to God to bless them with taufik and guidance.

 • Village Governance Elements

 "The crew has an idea to spice up lambago lambago, you know, you know, bapegea adeak, bapageo baso buts.  crew, duo tigo kendganai ". (Parno Marriage).

 Translation of the Parno Indigenous dialeg of KERINCI society above:

 "I am not reminiscent of the heirlooms of institutions. As far as I know, Indigenous fenced countries, marginally fenced edges. The country is landed, huhak haunted, haunted villages, abandoned houses, there are those who are then.  two three free wills ".

 Parno above illustrates the arrangement of a state-owned traditional customs institution, a luhak that has an upstream, a village with a village and a house with a store.  In Parno

 it can be seen the function of the tengganai in the family, namely as a decision maker, the person responsible for the future of his nephew.  A word of a nephew two or three thought by the tengganai.

 • Elements of Customs

 Although as a whole the Parno Helat Marriage is customary words, but certain sections describe how the actual position of adat in the community, such as the following quote Parno Helat Marriage:

 "Manek is there kito itoeh, let's add the basandi syara ', syara' basandi Kitabullah, Adeak is usually the syara'ngan kai, bajenjang rises by the god. Warieh the caliph shirt bajunjuoen.Patoeh tumboeh ila bagentoi, adeak lago pusako obsolete, kuak syara 'with dal.  I have to go with sluko, add ngato ".

 Parno above is the advice given by the Parno bearer to the husband and wife who had just entered into a marriage contract.  In his advice that the husband and wife seiya sekata, peace in harmony, downstream as a whole rowing paddle, hooray sahalak pole.  Woe with hunchback, jump with break, float and drift, submerged and wet.  Also advised that they live giving and receiving, understanding each other and not hurting each other.

 • The element of passion

 A sense of passion or the will that arises in a person's heart to do or do something passionately.  This spirit arises driven by two factors, namely: Factors originating from human beings themselves called desires, desires and hopes as well as factors originating from outside the human being itself, which can arouse those desires, desires and hopes, for example his encouragement  given by others through satire words, ridicule, and praise so as to arouse feelings

 excited about that.

 Parno Helat Marriage's oral literature is one of the ways that can arouse a sense of excitement from outside the human being itself through the arrangement of the beautiful words that are conveyed, for example his quote Parno Marriage below:

 "Why aren't you departmental, how come it's not buleih padoei, how come the batanam is not tumbouh, why is it batanneak not bieak, jadoeh baratauah, jadoi baribou, how come it isn't easy and it's too slow, how come it hurts and banned.

 Translations of the Parno Indigenous dialect of KERINCI above:

 If you are looking for gold, if you are in rice fields, you are going to get rice, if you are farming, you are going to breed, so you will be thousands, if you are raising chickens and ducks, you will have a place in the yard.  .

 Parno above gives enthusiasm to the new bride, so that in her family she will try hard to meet the demands of daily life in the present and the future.

 Try not to be careless but rather have to fight hard to achieve abundant and abundant results.




 Since 1980, Iskandar has never been separated from his routine activities, teaching and fostering members of the Ilok Rupo Studio.  Everything he did was for the sake of giving birth to Kerinci traditional art performers.

 The Marcok dance has a special place in Iskandar's heart.  He was the creator of the dance combined with the song and art of immunity in 1972. At first glance similar to Debus Dance from Banten.

 He created this dance because it was inspired by the ritual treatment of the Kerinci community.  The ritual is called aseik which means solemn.  The peak, which is marcok or invulnerable.

 He admitted, the first time to do the dance the scale of the show was still light, like stepping on glass and dancing on a plate.  "At that time, dancing was still wearing clothes," said the 75-year-old man.

 Iskandar considered what he was doing normal.  There is no special ritual to dance Marcok.  Iskandar only prayed together before the performance.  "There is no mystique in this dance," he said.

 That afternoon Iskandar Zakaria had just returned from the mosque to pray in the mosque not far from his residence.  Not long packing to change clothes, Iskandar immediately climbed the stairs to the second floor of his house.

 Besides teaching, he also made hundreds of other works of art, such as music, essays, prose, drama, and poetry.  At the same time Iskandar also collected as many as seven thousand artifacts in his personal museum.

 This dance involves five male dancers and four female dancers.  Iskandar has always been the main actor.

 The dance opened with several dancers stepping on the shard that had been prepared in the middle of the stage.

 Then, Iskandar acted bare-chested.  While holding the torch in both hands, he sprayed oil from his mouth to ignite the fire.  Occasionally the fire was directed at his body.

 Next attraction, Iskandar will take a sharp knife.  This action often makes the audience shudder.  Several times the tip of the blade will pierce into the body and head, until it goes into his mouth.  Iskandar did all that while stepping on shards of glass.

 This dance often wins dance festivals, such as in Palembang, Bangka, Belitung, and Medan.  Iskandar then began to dare to use sharp weapons in his performance.  The beat of the music and the chanting of the Kerinci language accompany each of these actions.

 I should not play anymore at this age.  I am still looking for a replacement.  If not, will have to appear again, "he said smiling.

 Criticism, of course, he never got because of this dance creation.  Some say Marcok is not part of the Kerinci culture.  For Iskandar, this is the whip that stimulates his enthusiasm to continue working.

 From the results of his study, Iskandar became directly involved in saving Kerinci cultural heritage objects.  There are at least seven thousand artifacts that he kept in his private museum, such as jars, menhirs, stone cutting tools, pottery, ancient manuscripts, weapons, money, and engraving.

 From the results of his study, Iskandar became directly involved in saving Kerinci cultural heritage objects.  There are at least seven thousand artifacts that he kept in his private museum, such as jars, menhirs, stone cutting tools, pottery, ancient manuscripts, weapons, money, and engraving.

 An Indian archeologist had taught Iskandar how to make a device to detect nature reserves in the ground.  Only using an iron rod, the tool can vibrate if it finds an artifact.

 After three years of college, his parents offered Iskandar to become a civil servant.  He also decided to leave college.

 As a child, he had several times moved schools, from Sungai Penuh then to Padang, West Sumatra.  He also had also lived in Jakarta.

 His position as Culture Inspector at the Ministry of Education and Culture made Iskandar exposed to Jambi culture and traditions, especially Kerinci.  "From that moment on I studied culture and tradition," he said.

 From the results of his study, Iskandar became directly involved in saving Kerinci cultural heritage objects.  There are at least seven thousand artifacts that he kept in his private museum, such as jars, menhirs, stone cutting tools, pottery, ancient manuscripts, weapons, money, and engraving.

 This effort began with the arrival of two women in 1972. At that time, he got two ancient cups.  "I bought Rp.2 thousand. That was the first cultural heritage object that I kept," said Iskandar.

 A year later he accompanied researchers from England to look for ancient objects in Kerinci.  Iskandar became more familiar with his hometown artifacts, including ascertaining whether the object was classified as protected or not.

 "I learned how to know the age of cultural heritage objects from foreign researchers who came here," he said.  His profession as Cultural Inspector in Sungai Penuh is indeed not far from the activity of inventorying cultural preservation objects.

 Iskandar still holds hope, what he has done so far to preserve and preserve the arts, culture and traditions of Kerinci can be increasingly recognized by the younger generation.  Likewise the preservation of regional culture and traditions becomes the government's priority.

 The award received by Iskandar Zakaria from the Indonesian Record Museum (MURI) in 2006 for writing the longest Qur'anic Manuscript in the world, which is 1919 meters.

 In addition to dance, Iskandar also has a phenomenal work, the longest Qur'anic manuscript in the world.  He did everything in eight years and spent Rp. 100 million.

 The manuscript is now in the Central Taklim Council Contact Agency Museum (BKMT), Bekasi, West Java.  This work began with a visit to several villages in Kerinci.  From there he found many ancient Koranic Manuscripts.

 Iskandar was born in Sungaipenuh, Kerinci, Jambi.  The 7th child of 12 siblings from the couple Zakaria and Rahma.

Kamis, 14 November 2019

Sastra Lisan Kerinci

Berdasarkan faktor geografis-Nya Kerinci adalah daerah yang strategis, bentuknya yang seperti kuali yang dataran-Nya dilingkungi bukit-bukit yang puncak-Nya menjulang tinggi dan ditumbuhi pepohonan besar dan kecil yang merata.

Sehingga Pemerintah menetapkan sebagai Taman Nasional Kerinci Sebelat(TNKS), disamping itu hutan-Nya dihuni oleh berbagai binatang buas, yang menyebabkan sukar dilalui dan jarang sekali orang yang keluar masuk daerah ini.

Lingkungan-Nya mendatangkan kedamaian dan kenyamanan  bagi penghuni-penghuni-Nya. Karena letaknya yang strategis inilah, sebagian orang-orang Kerinci pada umum-Nya sulit untuk pergi merantau, tanahnya, keindahan alamnya dan kedamaian lingkungan-Nya yang menjanjikan masa depan lebih baik.

Dengan keadaan alam yang sedikit tertutup membawa pengaruh bagi masyrakatnya. Penduduk Kerinci dikenal dengan masyarakat yang "Pemalu".Orang-orang Kerinci lebih suka berbahasa kias dalam menyampaikan keinginan dan maksud hati-Nya. Pun dalam mememohon sesuatu kepada yang lain, karena mereka beranggapan terlalu kentara diketahui keinginan-Nya.

Apalagi diketahui orang berbicara adalah seorang pemuka masyarakat. Untuk memberikan nasehat, misalnya, kata-kata dan bahasa yang digunakan haruslah bahasa yang tidak menyinggung perasaan orang yang berbicara.Karena itu lahirlah apa yang disebut dengan parno.

Maksud atau keinginan seseorang disampaikan secara kiasan dalam bentuk kata-kata yang bersajak dan ber-irama. Sejak itulah segala maksud dan keinginan disampaikan dengan kata-kata yang didalam-Nya dapat berisi pantun, pepatah, dan petitih yang menggambarkan maksud dari satu pihak kepada pihak yang lain.Kebanyakan kata-kata yang disampaikan berupa nasehat-nasehat,permohonan dan do'a-do'a.

Karena geografis dan budaya-Nya, masyarakat Kerinci masih memiliki rasa kebersamaan yang tinggi. Segala sesuatu diselesaikan dengan musyawarah. Rasa saling menghormati masih kentara sekali dimiliki oleh rakyat Kerinci, baik antara orang tua dengan anak-Nya maupun antara sesama anggota masyarakat yang lain.

Sikap saling menghormati, misalnya kalau seseorang anak dianggap sudah mampu berkeluarga dan umur-Nya sudah mencukupi tetapi sang anak belum menyampaikan keinginan-Nya kepada orang tuanya, maka orang tualalah yang berhak menanyakan-Nya. Kalau anak sudah menyampaikan maksud-Nya, selanjutnya orang tua menyampaikan kepada Mamak selaku orang yang bertanggung jawab terhadap keponakan-Nya. 

Dan Mamak inilah sebagai pihak yang menyiarkan  kepada khalayak ramai setelah sebelum-Nya menyelesaikan permasalahan dengan pihak-pihak yang terkait serta anggota masyarakat lain-Nya.
Didalam desa-desa yang ada dikerinci, Ninik Mamak merupakan tertua desa yang paling dihormati dan disegani, sebab segala urusan yang berhubungan dengan masalah kemasyarakatan, Ninik Mamak lah yang berhak memutuskan dan mencari jalan pemecahan-Nya.
Rasa hormat tinggi kepada Ninik Mamak ini ditunjukkan dengan menghadirkan atau meng-ikut sertakan  Ninik Mamak dalam acara-acara tertentu seperti : Minta arah, membangun rumah, kenduri pusaka, perkawinan,kenduri sehabis panen dan lain sebagai-Nya.

Untuk menghormati mereka tentu maka selanjutnya harus dijaga tata tertib dalam segala hal, seperti dalam bertingkah laku, berbicara dan lain-lain. Karena itu digunakan bahasa yang sopan dalam berbicara dengan Ninik Mamak, harus mengerti bahasa kiasan sebagaimana pepatah mengatakan" Binatang tahan Palu, Manusia tahan Kias.

Perkembangan selanjutnya sastra lisan parno itu terus dilakukan dalam setiap kegiatan-kegiatan yang melibatkan Ninik Mamak.Karena parno ini terdiri dari pantun-pantun dan pepatah-petitih adat maka maka orang yang membawakan-Nya adalah seorang yang bergelut dalam adat dan pandai berparno maka bisa menimbukan kesan yang indah bagi pendengar-Nya.

Berdasarkan perkembangan-Nya sehingga bentuk-bentuk parno helat perkawinan itu juga semakin beragam. Misalnya parno untuk pinang-meminang yang digunakan pada saat meminang seorang gadis oleh pihak laki-laki, parno pada acara pernikahan yang disampaikan kedua belah pihak dalam acara pernikahan.

Parno adalah suatu pernyaataan untuk menghormati orang lain, untuk menyampaikan maksud atau tujuan dari satu pihak yang dimaksud atau tujuan dari pihak yang disampaikan dengan bahasa  yang teratur dan ber-irama. Rentetan kata-kata ada yang dilukiskan dalam bentuk pantun-pantun atau syair-syair yang berisikan perumpamaan atau kiasan.

Dengan kata lain parno helat perkawinan ini menggunakan pepatah-petitih atau syair-syair untuk menyampaikan maksud atau tujuan satu pihak kepada yang lain, contoh-Nya dapat kita lihat dibawah ini :
"Mano kato mufakat kamai itoueh, iyolah kamai adea nahuh baleang janteang, kayo adea nahau ngan batino. Touhlah maksud kamai, ndok mena sangkoak untok kaduwu anouk kamanakan kito itou. Trimolah siheaih nan sakapo, ukok nan sabateang, tandoe pinangan kamai pado kayo".
Terjemahan ke dialeg Kerinci :
"Mana kata mufakat kami itu, ialah kami ada mempunyai balam jantan, Bapak ada mempunyai balam betina. Itulah maksud kami, hendak membuat sangkar untuk kedua anak kemanakan kita itu. Terimalah sirih nan sekapur, rokok nan sebatang, tanda pinangan kami pada Bapak".
Parno diatasenggunakan bahasa perumpamaan atau kiasan untuk menggambarkan  diri seorang laki-laki dan seorang perempuan, itu terlihat pada kalimat :" Kamai adea nahuh beleang janteang, kayo ado nahuh ngan batino.
 Yang mengungkapkan bahwa pihak keluarga A ada mempunyai anak bujang yang diibaratkan seekor burung balam jantan dan pihak keluar B ada mempunyai anak gadis yang diumpakan dengan burung balam betina.
Jadi agar mereka bersatu maka perlu dibuatkan sangkar yaitu dengan mengatakan kedua-Nya dalam ikatan perkawinan.

Gaya pengungkapan parno yang dihiasi dengan   bahasa yang ber-irama. Inilah yang mendorong masyarakat turut mengembangkan sastra lisan ini, agar membudaya di tenggah-tengah masyarakat.
Komunikasi dengan menggunakan bahasa yang baik akan mendasari terwujud-Nya maksud dan tujuan yang ingin disampaikan kepada orang lain. Bahasa adalah merupakan alat komunikasi yang ampuh dalam memper-erat dan mempertangguh tali kekerabatan antara sesama anggota masyarakat.

Oleh sebab itu si pemakai bahasa berusaha menyusun kata-kata yang indah atau menggunakan bahasa dengan baik agar maksud dan tujuan yang ingin disampaikan mudah diterima oleh orang lain.

Social and cultural geographic background of socially

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL GEOGRAPHIC BACKGROUND OF SOCIALLY    Kerinci Regency which is also called Sakti Alam Kerinci is a plateau ...