HISTORY AND TRADITIONAL LAND
Early History of Kerinci (Kerinci-Jambi Regency)
People's Plantation at the foot of Mount Kerinci
Kerinci, The word Kerinci was first known at the beginning of the year of our Lord. The word "Kerinci" is interpreted in many theories, both those produced through research to stories that develop in a society that has no clear argument. The following theories explain the meaning of the word Kerinci:
The condition of the Kerinci region bounded by the Bukit Barisan, dense forest, heavy terrain and wild animals, makes people think of Kerinci as a closed area, so that Kerinci is referred to from the meaning of the word 'Key.'
When viewed in terms of language, Kerinci comes from the words "kerin" and "ci". Austronesian language that goes to India (Sanskrit) the word "krin / kerin" or "khin" means upstream, while the word "ci" or "cai" means river, so Krinci or Kerinci means upstream, when viewed from the location of Kerinci located in mountainous regions and are upstream rivers that include Batang Merangin River, Batang Asai River, and others.
Mc Kinnon (1992) mentions that the word Kerinci is thought to originate from the word "Kurinci" (in Tamil) which means a mountainous area, on the grounds that Indians from the Tamil (Hindu) tribe in the early first century AD had been associated with residents living in the interior and along the West and East Coasts of Sumatra which were then not far from Kerinci. In commerce, the Tamils call people from the highlands in the mountains with a Kurinci greeting.
Kerinci's natural conditions cause this area to be grouped into Low Kerinci and High Kerinci. Kerinci Low is located in the eastern part of the Bukit Barisan mountains (now Merangin District), while Kerinci Tinggi which is now the Kerinci Regency are areas located in the western part of the Bukit Barisan mountains.
The Kerinci people who inhabit the Regency of Kerinci now are descendants of the Old Malay tribe who settled since the Neolithic era (8,000-7,000 years ago) or perhaps long before. Kerinci was under the rule of the Kingdom of Dharmasraya and Pagaruyung (West Sumatra), also under the Kingdom of Inderapura (west coast, now South Coast, West Sumatra), and the Sultanate of Jambi. However, the power over Kerinci is more on protection by paying tribute.
Kerinci has a culture, including the Kerinci language and script. Uli Kozok, an ancient Sumatran scholar from Germany, has found in Kerinci the oldest 14th century Malay manuscript from the Dharmasraya Kingdom, Adityawarman's era.
Kerinci is the Remnant of the Atlantean Civilization
Prof. Arysio Nunes Dos Santos published an appalling book: "Atlantis The Lost Continents Finally Found". Where was it found? He explicitly stated that the location of Atlantis which was lost since about 11,600 years ago was in Indonesia.
This civilization was agreed by Professor Stephen Oppenheimer who wrote the book Eden in The East: A Continent that Drowned in Southeast Asia.
According to him, the only fairy tale that spread widely in the world evenly was the story of the flood of Noah with all its versions. Muslims, Christians and Jews naturally get the story of Noah's flood from their respective scriptures. But what about pre-Islamic, Christian and Jewish communities? For example, the Sumerians, Babylonians, Indians, Greeks. They also apparently have a story of flash floods that submerged the whole land.
This 814-page book Eden in The East, half of it was spent by Oppenheimer to dissect these tales. Oppenheimer noted there are about 500 stories about flooding around the world. From India to America, from Australia to Europe. The main characters also change. The celestial religion calls it Noah, or Noah. The Mesopotamians called the hero Utanapishtim, in ancient Babylon called Athrasis, the ancient Indians called it Manu.
Names can be different, but the core of the story is the same. There is a great flood that submerges land, the main character saves himself by boat, or large ship. He did not forget to bring animals. The ship will land on the mountain and the main character with his family or followers continue their new lives.
Oppenheimer also revealed that there are more flood stories in Southeast Asia. The variations vary greatly among the various interior tribes in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and the islands of Polynesia.
The level of diversity in the story of flooding in this region also makes Oppenheimer theorize, if a nation forced to immigrate due to a large flood, lives in Indonesia and its surroundings. All of these flood stories, according to Oppenheimer, are proof that this great flood at the end of the Ice Age is true.
Kerinci Tribe At the time of the disaster that sank Atlantis managed to survive because they were on high ground, namely the peak of Mount Kerinci so as to avoid the disaster.
The Kerinci tribe is the oldest race, older than the Incas
Urban anthropology researchers from Diponegoro Radjimo University said the Kerinci tribe inhabiting the highlands of the Barisan hills around Mount Kerinci were apparently older than the Incas, Indians in America.
"From a research conclusion Dr. Bennet Bronson researchers from the US together with the National Archaeological and Heritage Team in Jakarta in 1973, what I read instead argues that the Kerinci tribe is even much older than the Incas (Indians) in America," he said, in Jambi on Saturday. (5/21).
That means the Kerinci people are not only older than proto-Malay. The Incan Indians themselves are one of the ancient prophecies about the 2012 apocalypse that inspired a horrendous Hollywood film in 2009. Indian Inca is believed to be an ancient tribe that already has a high civilization.
Radjimo revealed, one of the evidences presented by the Bennet Bronson team was about humans Kecik Wok Gedang Wok. He was the first tribe to have inhabited the Kerinci plateau more than 10,000 years ago. The tribe did not have individual nicknames until the entry of the Proto-Malay tribe.
"While the Inca Indians in America who were previously considered as one of the oldest tribes and races in the world are known at the same time to have names, such as Big Buffalo (Big Buffalo), Little Fire (Little Fire) and others," explained Radjimo.
So that's when this ethnic movement also took place from one place to another in the Malay Realms such as the transfer of Proto Malaiers (Old Malay) to the Kerinci Realm.
According to Kern, the Kerinci realm was inhabited by humans at that time, and they were the indigenous inhabitants of this so-called Kecik Wok Gedang Wok.
However, at that time the number of Proto-Malays which were more dominant than Kecik Wok Gedang Wok caused the natives to slowly disappear in the blood mix between migrants and natives. These groups later developed and became the ancestors of modern Kerinci people until the current generation. Another thing that is often used as research samples by these researchers is the diversity of languages and dialects in Kerinci. In a very diverse language, around 135 dialects, which are used only along the valley, complicate ethnographic research.
Some studies suggest that the Kerinci people belong to the original ethnic groups that first existed in Sumatra. This ethnic group came to be known as Kecik Wok Gedang Wok which is thought to have been in the Kerinci Alam region for 10,000 years (Whitten, 1987).
Uli Kozok, a philologist from Hawaii University in the United States, in his research concluded that the oldest Malay Malay text in the world is in Kerinci. "In the conclusion of research from research conducted in three countries namely Indonesia, Malaysia and the Netherlands, the philologist Dr. Uli Kozok concluded that the oldest Malay manuscript was in Kerinci, precisely in Tanjung Tanah Village," said Nukman SS in Jambi (30/4).
The text, he said, according to Uli Kozok's research turned out to be much older than 200 years compared to the manuscript of the letter of the king of Ternate which was previously declared as the oldest Malay text in the world. Manuscripts of the Tanjung Tanah law are estimated to have been issued in the 14th century.
According to Nukman, Uli Kozok's conclusion was also based on the carbon radio test conducted by his party in Wellington, New Zealand on samples of Daluang paper material (similar to bark) used for writing the manuscript.
"Uli Kozok's carbon radio test results which are very accurate in his prediction confirms that the Daluang used for the media of writing the manuscript can certainly be cut down in the span of time between the 12th and 13th centuries," he said.
From that age, according to him, it can be predicted that the writing of the manuscript also ranges not far from that century, the maximum in the 14th century the manuscript has been made. According to historical records as well, he said that at that time the Malay Kingdom with its capital in Darmasyaraya (a division district West Sumatra, a close neighbor of the Kerinci district) was ruled by Raja Adityawarman, who was at the height of his glory.
The prediction of the age of the Tanjung Tanah Law manuscript was also based on an analysis of the type of script used. Although it is known that Kerinci already has a previous character of his own, namely the Incoung script, but the owner who wrote the book uses the post-Pallawa script, not the Pallawa script and not the ancient Javanese script.
The Incung Script
"Therefore, Uli Kozok concluded that the manuscript must have been issued by the kingdom, namely king Adityawarman, who was incessantly building the image of his own government considering that at that time was the era began to weaken the influence of the large Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms on the island of Java," he said.
The Incung Script
Incoung script, he said even though it had become the original script that was used in general by the Kerinci people at that time, but for the kingdom it was considered to be the Sudra or commoner. Kerinci outsiders refer to the script as Surat Ulu, which means the script from the interior as Kerinci's own position is indeed located in the interior of Bukit Barisan.
"Therefore, according to Uli Kozok, the use of scripts is inseparable from the politics of Adityawarman himself who was so obsessed with building his own independent kingdom that he was able to break away from the influence of the big kingdoms in Java, so he used his own script which was rooted in the Pallawa and Javanese scripts, the area where he previously lived and studied, "said Nukman.
Kerinci cultural researcher Iskandar Zakaria revealed, the existence of the Kerinci tribe of Jambi province who inhabits the Andalas peak mountains in the ranks of the rows is much older than Proto-Malay which is considered to be the oldest Malay tribe. Said Kerinci cultural researcher born in West Sumatra, Iskandar Zakaria, in Kerinci. He said, from the evidence of ancient artifacts found and for 40 years the Kerinci tribe was actually much older than Proto-Malay itself. Not only his side believes about what is listed in one of the Sko (heirlooms) in the form of custom tambo and the Kerinci lineage that he researched.
People's Plantation in Mount Kerinci
When in thousands of years before Christ the first wave of Proto-Malay immigrants from the Southern China or Indian Hindus returned to the peak of Andalas. At that time the group of migrants had found humans in the area, right around the volcano which was believed to be Mount Kerinci.
Not only that, ancient humans in Kerinci were also said to have higher knowledge and civilization than them, the local tribe was already familiar with fire and able to process using iron or metal.
It is said, it was said that at that time the first person or indigenous population was using Siegie wood (Pinus Merkusi, Kerinci Strains) which indeed contained oil sap which could burn as a torch. Likewise, the spear points made of stone and metal. Because of that they can build stone artifacts into a means of various purposes, such as for altar offerings, for rest and so on, '' explained Iskandar.
One form of artifacts from the Megalithic era is stones in the form of seat holders, benches, stone doors or resembling arches, stoves or altars and sarcophagi, all of which are thought to be only through a very simple and rough carving process.
The stones are found widely scattered in hilly or highland areas in various sub-districts in the Kerinci district and Sungaipenuh city such as in the districts of Gunung Raya, Keliling Danau, Batang Merangin, Sitinjau Laut, Lake Kerinci, Kumun-Debai. Such conditions include villages such as in Muak, Benik, Jujun, Pulau Sangkar in Gunung Raya, Hiang Tinggi, in and in Kumun.
In the course of the next development of a younger civilization can also be found Seilindrik stones and pictorial stones, also menhirs and caves. All that is believed from the tools used to be more advanced in the form of axes, chisels, wedges and pickaxes from iron.
In fact, he added, with these ancient objects, some indigenous people in Kerinci dared to think that they were actually one of the descendants of a pair of US Noah prophets who were descended from his ship on the Kerinci plateau when the sea water had begun to recede, in order to build civilization in the region.
Revealing the fact that the discovery of teeth and fossils in giant sizes allegedly belonged to humans or ancient creatures "Homo Kerinciensis" found by residents in the village of Kumun Hilir, Kumun-Debai sub-district three kilometers from the downtown of Sungaipenuh lately further strengthened the assumptions and estimates.
If the findings of the fossils and teeth were successfully concluded by the Jakarta archaeological laboratory, then it can be ascertained that this is one of the strong evidence and facts for the old Kerinci chain of civilization which is believed to be much older than Proto Melayu, "he explained.
He estimated it occurred in the span of several centuries before Christ, while the ancient Kerinci tribe had inhabited the land thousands of years before.
"I have studied this for nearly 40 years, dozens of books have been compiled as a picture of my temporary conclusions, but until now I admit that I have not been able to make final conclusions, because of the various limitations of the research tools I did," he said.
The Kerinci Site Deserves World Heritage
Long before Indonesia's independence, Kerinci was an area that had its own political power. Before the Dutch entered Kerinci recorded three phases of its history, namely: The Montino Kingdom or Nan Tigo Tribe Kingdom, the Depati Period and the Kerati Depati IV Period. Montino Kingdom is a kingdom that is between the kingdom of Minangkabau and the Kingdom of Jambi, headquartered on Sangkar Island. Next, in the two periods of Depati, Pulau Sangkar and Kayu Aro played a central role as one of the four centers of power in Kerinci.
But since the Dutch began to occupy Kerinci in 1914, the central role of aro-wood politically has begun to decline. When the Netherlands established Kerinci as an afdelling in the powers of the Jambi Residency (1904) and under the Residency of West Sumatra (1921) and when Kerinci became a district of its own within the territory of the Province of Jambi (in 1958), Sangkar Island was only a capital of the Kemendapoan (a government level under the sub-district and one level above the village).
The Origins of the words Pondok Tinggi, Sungaipenuh, Dusun Baru and Kampung Submerged
In ancient times, Kerinci Lake was very wide, and there were so many rivers that flowed there, so at that time the area was called Sungai Sungai. The people were still flooding often due to the overflowing of the surrounding rivers, so the inhabitants lived in high areas now called Pondok. high. at this time lake Kerinci much used as rice fields such as hiang, village land, tanjung pauh, sea view etc. Try to notice the results of the photo from Google Earth above shows that the color of the lake is black which indicates very deep while there is a gray color that indicates the flow of the river At times the river water that often overflows causes several villages that live near the lake area of Hiang, Tanah Kampung, Tanjung Pauh, Sitinjau Laut etc. make terraced houses because in addition to avoiding wild animals, also to avoid flooding even in the hiang area there is a village called Kampong Submerged because in the past it was always flooded. After a few years the water began to shrink, people in the high rise area also began migrating downstream to what is now called Dusun Baru.
The ancestors of the Kerinci people always made settlements in fertile areas which are often called gutters, hamlets, koto. The development of this settlement is expected to occur during the Sugindo era. During Sugindo's era, the development of people's lives was far more advanced, they had begun to settle down.
Referring to the place of discovery of historical heritages, it is known that the settlements that were made by ancestors in ancient times include:
Sekitar Around Mount Masurai, Lake Depati Empat (Lake Besar), Lake Pauh. It is estimated that these areas are the locations of Purba Hamlet, Renah Punti, Talang Penggala, Muara Penon, Durian Tinggi and Sungai Kuyung. The five hamlets are estimated to be around the Serampas and Sungai Tenang areas of Jangkat District and around the area there are also estimated to be Purba Koto Mutun Hamlet, Renah Lipai Tuo, Pelegai Panjang which are within Muara Siau District.
Selatan In the south of Lake Kerinci around the village of Muak there is now the Purba Jerangkang Tinggi village.
IIn the west bank of Lake Kerinci around the hamlet of Jujun and Benik now.
√In the highlands above Sungai Penuh City, between Bukit Mejid and Bukit Koto Tinggi, around the present Koto Pandan area.
SekitarAround the hills above Kumun Hamlet now
SekitarAround the hills above the Liuk River is estimated to be the location of the ancient village of Koto Bingin
SekitarAround the hills above Simpang Belui and Semurup, it is estimated that the site of the ancient village of Koto Limau Sering.
SekitarAround the Hiang hamlet is estimated to have an ancient hamlet Koto Jelatang.
√The location of ancient hamlets has grown many hamlets that have formed gradually over a long period of time, for example:
√From Purba Jerakang Tinggi Hamlet gave birth to Two Caged Islands, Sanggaran Agung, Jujun Pulau Tengah, Siulak Mukai and Peng
From Sangka Island Hamlet then moved north to birth 1 Lekuk 33 Tumbi Hamlet which later changed its name to Partially Allied Hamlet moving downward to give birth to 50 Tumbi Lekuk Hamlet and Lempur Hamlet now. From Sangkar Island Hamlet, gave birth to Pondok, Muak, Lolo, Lubuk Pai Keluru, Semerap.
√From Sanggaran Agung Hamlet developed into Tanjung Pauh Mudik Hamlet, Pondok Siguang, Tanjung Pauh Hilir, Talang Kemulun.
√From Pengasi Hamlet developed into Pulau Pandan Hamlet, Pendang Talang Genting, Tebing Tinggi, Selema Tanjung Batu, Pidung. For Selema, some of the residents come from Purba Hamlet, Koto Jelatang.
√From Pulau Pulau Hamlet developed into Koto Tinggi and Koto Dian Hamlets.
√From Jujun Hamlet developed into Benik Hamlet.
√From the Siulak Mukai Hamlet in the Land of Sekudung developed into Mukai Mudik Hamlet, Tengal Mukai Ilir Hamlet, Siulak Gedang, Siulak Panjang, Lubuk Nagodang, Siulak Kecik Siulak Tenang, Tanjung Genting, Koto Kapeh, Pegeh River, Siulak Gedang, Siulak Panjang, Lubuk Nagodang, Siulak Kecik Siulak Tenang, Tanjung Genting, Koto Kapeh, Pegeh River, Dusun Baru Sungai Labu.